F-110 frigates infographic. Source - Navantia.

F-110 frigates’ anti-submarine capabilities

The F-110 frigates have the difficult mission of replacing the F-80s, which have provided such a good service, giving back to the Armada some of the anti-submarine capabilities that we have neglected for decades. To do so, they are relying on an anti-submarine suite provided by Thales and SAES, which includes top-level equipment on a par with navies such as the US Navy and the French Marine Nationale. As a result, they will form the core of a force that will be supplemented in the future by the capabilities provided by S-80 submarines and future maritime patrol aircraft, manned or unmanned. Although the years ahead are far from rosy, as there is much work to be done – as much as there has been institutional neglect – the F-110 frigates are a great first step. In January 2013 the Military […]

S-81 Isaac Peral. Source - Navantia

The combat system of the S-80 submarines

It is difficult to explain the complexity inherent in platforms such as the S-80 submarines. This type of programme is often compared to space programmes, partly for marketing reasons, but also to try to summarise, in a few words, the enormous number of systems and subsystems that make them up. Over the next three articles we will explain one by one the systems that, vertebrated by the Combat System, will allow the S-81 “Isaac Peral” and its twins to be among the most capable conventional submarines in the world. To this end, in this first article, we will talk about the sonar suite. Subsequently, in a second publication, we will focus on the surface sensors, communications systems, platform control and navigation systems, and countermeasures systems. Finally, a third article will be devoted to armament, as this is such a complex […]

M142 HIMARS. Source - US Army.


Since the first M142 HIMARS system arrived in Ukraine on June, rivers of ink have been written about its role in the war. There is no doubt that thanks to its mobility, versatility, precision and range, it has allowed Ukraine to inflict real damage on Russian logistics. Hence, limiting its ability to coordinate large-scale operations and thus limiting its progress. In this sense, the HIMARS and its brothers, the M270 and the MARS II, have changed the sign of the conflict. However, it has not been their only notch, as they have previously played an important role in other conflicts, including Afghanistan and the fight against Daesh. What is more important, everything seems to indicate that we are only at the beginning of its operational life, since improvements and new ammunition are constantly being developed that promise an intense future. […]

USS America (LHA-6) F-35B loaded. Source - US Navy.

The return of light aircraft carriers

In the decades immediately after the Second World War, light aircraft carriers progressively decreased in number, becoming the solution for those navies that could not afford to maintain true fleet carriers. This trend became even more pronounced with the end of the Cold War and the decommissioning of many of the last exponents still in service. Now, faced with a new scenario of great power competition in which naval supremacy is no longer assured for the US and its allies, and with the impossibility of operating more Nimitz and Gerald R. Ford class supercarriers, the light aircraft carrier concept is regaining much of its appeal. This is not only because of the possibility of access – at least for some US partners – to the F-35B, but also as a platform from which to operate fixed-wing drones, something that China […]


FGK Programme (Fuze Guidance Kit)

Four years ago, the Madrid-based company Escribano Mechanical & Engineering (EM&E) began working on a unique project in our country: the design of guidance kits that could be used in rocket ammunition as well as in howitzers and mortars. Since then, the dozens of people working on the FGK (Fuze Guidance Kit) programme have achieved important advances and passed numerous milestones. For example, on 7 June, at the Torregorda Test Centre (Centro de Ensayos de Torregorda, CET), which is part of INTA (National Institute for Aerospace Technology) and located on the outskirts of the city of Cadiz (Spain), we were able to witness the launch of five 155 mm projectiles equipped with five guided fuses. The results of the tests, which were a resounding success, achieving an accuracy that would be impossible to achieve without these kits and demonstrating the reliability […]


Status-6 / Poseidon / Kanyon

President Putin’s statements in early March 2018 have highlighted a number of deep-rooted Russian weapons developments, including the Status-6 (AKA Poseidon, AKA Kanyon). On the one hand, it would seem that Russia is closer to developing a Science Fiction-like arsenal than to having conventional strategic forces. On the other hand, for years now, there has been discussion about the real viability of these weapons and developments. It is true that the presentation of the new systems by the President of a nation as powerful as the Russian Federation gives a boost to their existence. It is no less true, on the other hand, that rumors have been reproducing for years and that, although scarce, there has been information on the subject for years for those who wish to delve a little into the matter. In any case, we must not […]

Turkish Leopard 2A4 in Syria. Source - Defence Blog.

Turkish Leopard 2A4TR in the Syrian snow

The Turkish Army acquired 298 second-hand Leopard 2A4 from the Bundeswehr depots, as many of NATO’s European partners. These Turkish Leopard 2A4TR received a single modification in later years, consisting of the addition of new and improved air filters – something important for the dusty lands of the Middle East – although possibly this improvement was implemented without thinking that they would be tested in a conflict as complex as the Syrian conflict… Turkish Leopard 2A4 in Syria: Operation Euphrates Shield At the end of August 2016, after months of preparation, Turkey began the deployment of troops through northern Syria with the intention of preventing the unification of the Kurdish cantons in Syrian territory, whose peshmerga were expelling Daesh from large areas of the country. The possibility of the Kurds achieving a sort of state of their own in northern […]